We are pleased to provide you and new members of your team the following glossary to better understand metal forming presses. Typical press operations and other terms referring to press features and functions are defined below:
IMPORTANT NOTE: ALL SUTHERLAND PRESSES exceed Japanese Industrial Standard 1ST Class (JIS-1). If you would like more information regarding the allowable accuracies of our presses, please request.
ONLINE TRAINING MEETINGS: SUTHERLAND can arrange an online meeting with you and your team to go over any aspect of presses and press lines. Call 1-310-453-6981 to request and on-line meeting.
ACB / Air Counter Balance systems are provided on mechanical presses to equalize the upper die weight. It is critical that they are adjusted for the proper pressure based on dynamic load when running at a set speed. The purpose - to hold up the connection points in the drivetrain to prevent egg-shaping slamming of connection points. Failure to adjust properly will cause excessive wear on the press drivetrain. Click here for more info.
BDC is when press is at the bottom of the stroke or 180 degrees / 6:00 o’clock.
The Bed is the stationary portion or "table" of the press to which the bolster is attached. Press Rigidity is crucial to lower press maintenance and increases die life. SUTHERLAND can customize and stiffen beds to meet JIS Super Series deflection requirements upon request.
Blanks are produced from the shearing or cutting of outside contours or shapes out of sheet or strip stock. For larger production runs, blanking is often done in multiple dies, and is combined with other operations such as piercing and forming in combination and progressive dies. SUTHERLAND can provide shock absorbing units for applications that have heavy REVERSE TONNAGE.
A plate or block attached to the top of the press bed where the die is fastened. In some rare cases the die is fastened directly to the bed. The bolster can be machined for application specifics or standard T-Slot for QUICK DIE CLAMPING. SUTHERLAND standard machining provides T-Slot on 6” Centers on bolster and slide.
The friction mechanism used to stop or control the motion of a press, feed or other mechanism. Brake stopping time must be monitored in MS / milliseconds to assure that the press slide stops within a safe acceptable limit.
Rated press capacity is the tonnage pressure the slide can safely exert at the bottom of the stroke. Mechanical press capacity is typically based on the bending capacity of the main shaft (crank, toggle, or eccentric shaft). It is important to know and understand 1.) Tonnage Curve based on rating point ABDC / above bottom dead center and 2.) Energy Curve based on press speeds. Presses should only be used within the designed capacity.
A coupling used to connect or disconnect a driving machine-member, such as a shaft or wheel, to or from a driven machine-member, such as another wheel or shaft. The engaging or disengaging can be done by a hand operated controlling device operated manually or automatically. SUTHERLAND offers combination dry clutch & brake as standard equipment and wet running clutch & brakes as optional.
The most popular method of coil feeding a press is with a servo drive coil feeder mounted to the press near the incoming side of the die set. Complete systems are available from coil loading, unwinding, straightening, lubricating and servo feeding material into the die. SUTHERLAND can provide complete press and feed line.
Coining is a squeezing operation, usually performed in a closed die in which the metal is forced to flow and fill the shape and profile of the die. There is a definite change in metal thickness. Knuckle Joint presses are best suited to coining operations.
Near net shape forging is most common when parts are forged without heating the slug, bar or billet. Aluminum is a common material that can be cold forged depending on final shape. Lubrication of the parts being formed is critical to increase the life of the mating dies. Best suited to run in KNUCKLE JOINT presses.
Are the number of points that connect the upper drivetrain to the slide. “Single Point” is used when bed / die areas are small, usually less than 60” left to right. “Double Point” are used when die area are greater than 60” left to right. This helps with off-center loads from larger die areas. “Four Point” is used for larger front to back die areas that are 84” or greater.
Is available with the I-PRESS and automation control from Sutherland Presses. This allows selected users to log in to the press control from remote and mobile devices. This is a great tool for remote trouble shooting and training of operators. Click here for the full article.
Is a mode of operation when the press or slide will run in continuous operation. Proper safe-guarding must be in place to protect the operator and shop floor staff.
This is a special control feature that allows the press to be slaved to automation upstream or downstream. Once the signal is received the press will run in continuous mode until told by auxiliary equipment to stop. Proper safe guarding must be in place to protect the operator and shop floor staff. Also see SINGLE ON DEMAND / SSD
Press & Automation Controls are the heart of a stamping, forging or hydraulic pressing. Safety is first on the list followed by function, ease of use and ability to scale and customize. The latest in press & automation controls is the I-PRESS AB PLUS & I-PRESS STANDARD for mechanical presses and the I-PRESS AB HYDRO for hydraulic presses.
An air driven system made up of cylinders that can equalize the weight of the upper Slide and the additional weight of the upper die that is mounted to the slide. It is important to have this adjusted correctly based on upper die weight and speed of press to prevent damage to press connection points.
Crimping is an operation in which the open end of a can or shell is forced tight over or around a mating part. This type of work is limited largely to assembly operations.
Curling is the forming of an edge having a circular cross section along a sheet or around the end of a shell or tube. This operation is sometimes called false wiring.
Most common in hydraulic presses to control the downward stroke of the slide or the upward stroke of die cushions. The number of cylinders or cylinder layout depends on die area required. On more modern presses position is normally monitored by linear transducers.
Is the maximum opening on a hydraulic press and measured between the slide and bolster surface.
Forming of deep recessed parts from sheet material by means of a plastic flow of the material worked in presses and dies. With the I-PRESS AB HYDRO control we offer a multi-point edit screen that allows the user to change speeds, pressures & distances seven (7) times throughout the stroke.
Deflection is the amount of bending or the deviation from a straight line or a plane when a force or load is applied to a surface of a machine member or part.
1. A tool used on a press for any operation or series of operations, such as forming, drawing, piercing and cutting. The upper member (or members) are attached to the slide (or slides) of the press, with the lower member clamped or bolted to the bed or bolster, shaped so that the material placed between them is cut or formed when the press makes a stroke. 2. The female part of a complete die assembly as described in (1).
On most modern presses adjustable height die blocks are provided for safety when working on the press or die. Die blocks are electrically connected with a chain. When die blocks are in holder and plug is connected press will run in normal modes. When die block is moved to die area and unplugged, press will not operate.
An attachment or press accessory which gives additional motion or pressure required in many compound press operations. The pressure medium can be rubber, springs, air or liquid (usually oil). Air (pneumatic) cushions are the most commonly used. Uses include blank holding, drawing, maintaining uniform pressure on a die part, knockout, and stripping. Typically mounted in order on the press bed, they can sometimes be mounted on the top of a press slide flange.
The die height is the closed height of a die during the working portion of the press or completed operation in the die. Die Height is measured from the top of the bolster plate to the bottom of the slide. SDAU equals stroke down – adjustment up which is the maximum die height when the stroke is at BDC / BOTTOM DEAD CENTER.
Optional Electronics in our control can offer in groups of 8, monitoring of events at various portions of the stroke.
The distributor block can be found in the press lubrication system. Commonly the main source of lubrication will send oil / grease to distributor block which will then send oil / grease on to the needed points of lubrication. On most modern presses the distributor blocks have electronic monitoring to stop the press and show a lube fault.
Essentially a disk arranged to rotate around a center - not the center of dish but parallel to it. An eccentric should crank with a crankpin of such size that it contains or surrounds the shaft. The eccentric with its strap or connection is used in the eccentric press and for driving auxiliary attachments, such as lift-outs and various types of feeds.
Embossing is a process for producing raised or sunken designs in sheet metal by means of a male and female die.
An extrusion is a process in which pressure is applied to a slug of metal causing the metal to flow either up around the punch or down in the direction of pressure.
Fine blanking is a specialized form of blanking where there is no fracture zone when shearing. This is achieved by compressing the whole part and then an upper and lower punch extract the blank, allowing the process to hold very tight tolerances and perhaps eliminate secondary operations.
A wheel used on an engine or machine with a rotation energy or inertia able to prevent excessive or sudden changes in speed. In modern mechanical presses the flywheel is usually driven by multiple belts from the main motor pulley to the flywheel. A clutch is mounted on or within the flywheel which, when engaged starts slide movement.
The flywheel brake is an air cylinder with electric controlled solenoid that has the ability to stop the rotation of the flywheel. This safety device should be engaged before entering die area.
A manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging (a type of cold working), warm forging, or hot forging (a type of hot working).
Depending on the weight of the press, current floor thickness and soil condition it may be required to have a foundation poured to sustain the dynamic load of the press. For larger presses this is an opportunity to set the best floor to bolster height for your facility and operator ergonomics.
Guides that insure the proper sliding fit between two machine parts and which usually are adjustable for taking up excessive wear, e.g., press gibs that guide the press slide. Preferred types: 6 Point Full Length on Gap Frame presses and 8 Point Full Length Taper Wedge on Straight Side Presses.
A manufacturing process which shapes a workpiece by applying compressive forces on it. According to the temperature at which it is performed, forging is classified as “hot”, “warm” or “cold”.
A machine control process used to adjust and set dies and other tools by precisely controlling the working members of the press in short increments, usually by rapidly engaging and disengaging the clutch or using electric or pneumatic push button controls.
Is the latest in press and automation controls for mechanical and hydraulic presses. I-PRESS comes fully featured with every feature and job memory to reduce set up time and increase uptime. Click here for more info.
Ironing is a process in which the wall thickness of the shell is reduced without changing the O.D. of the shell (cartridge case work for example).
A knuckle joint is a unique press drive system with a hinged pin that is well suited for coining, extruding and embossing work.
Slitting and forming a pocket shaped opening in sheet metal, without removing metal.
A link motion is a modified slide motion that produces either constant velocity or increased slow down through the working part of the press stroke.
A manifold is common on modern hydraulic presses. This is a gun-drilled / ported steel block to contain and direct flow of medium and high pressure fluids. Manifolds greatly reduce piping connections and the potential for leaks. In most cases electrically controlled solenoid valve(s) to control flow direction and pressure are mounted directly to the manifold.
Hydraulic Overload Protection is a pressurized cavity located under the connection point in the slide. This system is designed to protect the press from exceeding 110% of press capacity. It can also be used for freeing stuck dies near BDC (bottom dead center). SUTHERLAND presses come standard with a Keyed Switch at the MOS station allowing releasing the overload system for freeing stuck dies near BDC.
Piercing is a general term for cutting (shearing or punching) openings, such as holes and slots in sheet material, plate or parts. Similar to blanking the slug or piece produced by piercing is scrap, whereas the blank produced by blanking is the useful part. In both cases the burr is opposite.
Pitman is a connecting rod to convey motion and pressure from a revolving crank or eccentric to a sliding or swinging member, such as a slide or lever. Pitmans & Con Rods are a crucial part of delivering tonnage from the drivetrain to the die area. In many cases with more modern presses, this connection point incorporates a motorized slide adjustment system and hydraulic overload cylinder. It is very important to maintain this area of the drivetrain.
Provides a superior connection when compared to a pitman or connecting rod. Plunger Guided presses deliver tonnage vertically to the slide eliminating side thrust loads into slide gibs and tooling.
A pneumatic die cushion is the pneumatic (air) attachment consisting essentially of cylinder piston, pressure plate and accessories generally used with a press for clamping, blank holding or ejecting.
Preventative Maintenance is the best up-time insurance for end users. Team Sutherland offers a comprehensive “Green-Yellow-Red” inspection report with photos of all aspects of the press. Green are good to go, Yellow are caution areas that will need to be addressed and Red are action items that need to be addressed ASAP.
A series of two or more dies arranged in line for performing two or more operations on a part - one operation (single or compound) performed in each die, at each station. Work in the form of a strip is usually fed to progressive dies automatically by a roll feed.
A system of short stroke hydraulic cylinders designed to absorb the negative effects of REVERSE TONNAGE.
Optional systems can be provided that decrease the upper and lower die clamping time. Normally consisting of Air over Hydraulic Tank and Pump unit that controls hydraulically powered clamps on the slide and bolster.
Is one of the most damaging effects on a stamping press. Also known as “Snap Thru” this is when a great amount of forward tonnage is quickly released in flat type blanking or piercing operations. A good rule of thumb is that a press should not be exposed to more than 10% of total press capacity. We do have solutions, see PUNCHING DAMPERS.
A service by qualified rigging companies to use fork trucks, versalifts, cranes or gantries to unload, move and assemble press and equipment to final location.
This is a special control feature that allows the press to be slaved to automation or upstream or downstream. Once the signal is received the press will run make a single stroke and then stop. Proper safe guarding must be in place to protect the operator and shop floor staff. Also see Continuous on Demand / CSD.
The most common name for the main reciprocating member of a press, guided in the press frame and to which the punch or upper die is fastened. It is also referred to as the ram. The inner slide of a double action press is called the plunger; the outer slide of a double action press is called the blank holder slide, and the slide of a hydraulic press is often called the platen. SUTHERLAND standard machining provides T-Slot on 6” Centers on bolster and slide.
The slide adjustment device is a motorized system with worm shaft and worm gear that allows the Die Height to be changed via push button. This system also comes with a digital readout.
Hydraulic Slide Adjustment locking device prevent slide creep up under heavy stamping loads.
Locking device prevent slide drift on hydraulic presses.
The shut height of an upright press is the distance from the top of the bed to the bottom of the slide with stroke down and adjustment up. The shut height must always be defined either from the top of the bed or from the top of the bolster. The shut height of a horizontal or inverted press, or of a press with adjustable bed, can be defined in a similar manner. Generally the shut height is equal to the maximum die-height of the die that can be accommodated, taking the bolster into consideration. Die Height is measured the same but to the top of the bolster.
Staking is an operation in which two or more parts are assembled permanently by upsetting a small portion of metal over the mating part, causing the compression on the assembled parts.
A manufacturing process by which sheets or strips of material are punched using a machine press or stamping press to form the sheet. This could be a single stage operation where every stroke of the press produces the desired form, or could occur through a series of stages. The process is usually carried out on sheet metal, but can also be used on other materials such as polystyrene.
The reciprocating motion of a press slide, usually specified as the number of inches between the terminal points of the motion. Stroke length relates to speed ranges, the longer the stroke the slower the press speed range.
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Swaging is forming a metal by the rapid striking of a large number of successive blows. In the case of aircraft cable fittings, the fitting is rotated while the press blows are being struck.
Are machined slots in the lower bolster and upper slide that are provided for clamping of dies in a secure fashion. Normal T-Slot patterns are machined in 6” C/L (center line). Custom patterns can be machined to end users requirement.
TDC is when press is at the top of the stroke or 360 degrees / 12:00 o’clock.
Four long rods, with threads and nuts on both ends, which hold the frame members of a straight side press together. These rods are stretched to place the frame members under compressive load.
The open space in a gap frame press back of the slide centerline. The depth of throat (gap) is the distance from the slide centerline back to the frame metal of the upright section.
The transfer is an automation system that can move parts from station to station, die to die or press to press too make multiple hits and form parts.
Trimming is a secondary operation on drawn or formed parts to remove excess metal on the flange or axial length.
Depending on the dimensions of the load, there are many types of systems for transport.
DC = Dry Container, OT = Open Top Container, HQ = High Cube Container, FR-20 = 20” Flat Rack, FR-40 = 40’ Flat Rack, BB = Break Bulk, RORO = Roll On Roll Off Ship
Flatbed - not recommend for presses and heavy loads due to high center of gravity. Single Drop for reduced height, Double Drop for taller loads, 19 Axle for Super loads. NOTE: for overweight or over dimension loads, in most cases permits and sometimes escort cars are required.
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